APA Citing

There are two popular methods of citing. One is called APA because it was popularized by the American Psychological Association. Another is called MLA because it was popularized by the Modern Language Association.

APA Style

General APA Guidelines:

Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use 12 pt. Times New Roman font or a similar font.

How to Cite in Your Paper:

After any sentence that includes information from another source, you need a citation. This includes sentences that paraphrase, summarize, and quote from another source.

When summarizing the main point of a whole text, include the name of the author and the date published in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period.

  • Example #1: Throughout American history, dating as far back as Christopher Columbus, those with power have tried to enslave, coerce, manipulate, or oppress minorities in order to maintain control (Zinn, 2003, ).
  • Example #2: According to Howard Zinn in A People’s History of the United States (2003), throughout American history, dating as far back as Christopher Columbus, those with power have tried to enslave, coerce, manipulate, or oppress minorities in order to maintain control.

When quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing a specific section of a text, include the author, the date published, and the page number in parentheses at the end of the sentence before the period. If you are citing an electronic source with no page numbers, then do not include a page number.

  • Summarizing Specific Section: The traditions of hip hop were rooted in four elements: DJing, MCing, b-boying, and graffiti writing (Chang, 2005, p. 90).
  • Paraphrasing Specific Section: According to Jeff Chang in Can’t Stop, Won’t Stop, the traditions of hip hop were rooted in four elements: DJing, MCing, b-boying, and graffiti writing (Chang, 2005, p. 90).
  • Quoting Specific Section: According to Chang, hip hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa was the “preacher of the gospel of the ‘four elements’– DJing, MCing, b-boying, and Graffiti Writing” (Chang, 2005, p. 90).

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